Бахтыгуль Маханбетова

Страна: Казахстан

Бахтыгуль Маханбетова Международный литературный агент, член консультативного совета Евразийской творческой гильдии(Великобритания), координатор издательских домов Анатолия культур и Ферфир, журналов Темрин и Аджеми( Турция), консультант фонда женщин-ученых Казахстана, обладатель гранта Гете -Институт “Культура в движении(Германия), Спикер TEDxLambeth(Великобритания), переводчик ( казахский, русский, английский), преподаватель английского языка(30 лет), координатор многих международных онлайн/оффлайн проектов по литературе.

 

Country: Kazakhstan

Bakhtygul MAKHANBETOVA International literary agent Member of advisory board of Eurasian Creative Guild (UK) Consultant of Women Scientists’ Fund of Kazakhstan Editor & publisher of Kazakh authors in UK Translator (Kazakh, Russian, English) General Coordinator Anatolia Kultur, FERFIR Publishing Houses& TEMRIN and ACEMI Magazines Teacher of English (1987 – 2017) Author of a manual “Supplementary exercises for language learners of technical English”, Entrepreneur and Owner of two businesses (Study center “Zhanga Kazakhstan” language courses & education projects, LLP “Bestsellerkz” literature promotion projects) 2006 – 2018 Graduate of Almaty pedagogical institute of foreign languages- Abylai Khan Kazakh University of international relations and world languages (1982 -1987)

Отрывок из перевода non-fiction Райхан Имаханбет “ Ғасыр саңлағы”  

 

The policy of the Russian state, which conquered fifteen republics, treated the Kazakh people only as a “second-class nation” and ignored them – not anyone among the Kazakh intelligentsia sat quietly by the humiliation. Half a century later, it became clear that the man who fought “to bring the oppressed nation back to life” was a “victim of the accursed 1937.” On October 24, 1989, Sholpan Baisalova received her father’s “death certificate“. The certificate states: “On December 8, 1937, at the age of 62, he was shot and  officially registered it with the note #2on March 23, 1989, under the name” shot “as the cause of death” [82]. This cold paper itself fell into the hands of Aunt Sholpan, who lived through a doomsday, more than half a century later, exactly “52” years later. Sholpan received a certificate on his father that acquitted, on November 21, 1988, and on her mother who acquitted, on September 5, 1989. The originals of these documents, officially submitted by the Supreme Court of the Kazakh SSR, are stored in the fund of the House-Museum of Scientists, which on this day became a school in Almaty.

Based on the information in the official certificate that” he was shot in 1937 at the age of 62”, it isn’t true that Akhmet’s year of birth was “1874”. In general, the dates of birth of a person – 1870, 1873, and 1874 are incorrect, the actual year of birth – September 5, 1872. The year of death – “1938” – is also unfounded, as evidenced by the death certificate – December 8, 1937.

We can analyze the main stages of the life of Akhmet Baitursynuly by sorting archival data and memoirs, sources of information in cognitive analysis and research.  The  founder of the Kazakh alphabet, Kazakh linguistics and literary criticism, turkologist, poet, translator, founder of the newspaper “Kazakh” (1913–1918) and chief expert, society and  state leader, a leader of the nation, a leader of Alash, a victim of the Soviet system.

Akhmet Baitursynuly was born on September 5, 1872 in the village of Sarytubek, Torgai district, and Kostanay region. He received his first education in a mobile school in the country.

In 1886, he entered the two-class Russian-Kazakh school in Torgai and graduated in 1891. In the same year, he was admitted to the Orynbor Teachers’ School, and in 1895 by the decision of the Pedagogical Council of the Central Medical School, he was awarded the title of “Primary School Teacher”.

In 1895, the first article: “Kyrgyz Superstitions and Proverbs” was published in the 39th issue of “Torgaiskaya Gazeta“.

From 1896 to 1908, he worked as a teacher in rural, district schools in Aktobe, Kostanay, Auliekol, Karkaraly, as a teacher in a two-class Russian-Kazakh school. During this period:

  • In 1897, he married Alexandra-Badrisafa.
  • In 1901–1904, in addition to teaching, he was engaged in literary writing in order to improve his knowledge. While living in Omsk, he translates the fables of I. Krylov in order to awaken the consciousness of the nation.
  • In 1905, together with the Kazakh scholars, he wrote a letter of competence to the central government expressing the wishes of the Kazakh nation.
  • From 1905 to 1908, he was a teacher and head of the Russian-Kazakh school in Karkaraly, where he held two positions.
  • In 1908, he was imprisoned in Karkaraly for his political views. Karkaraly is a place where Akhmet was involved in politics. The Karkaraly prison was his first time in a narrow cell.

In 1909, the collection “Forty Fables” was published. The book shocks the Kazakh readers, and it is a blow to the honor of the Kazakh people.

He was re-arrested on July 1, 1909, and spent 8 months in a Semei prison without trial or conviction until February 21, 1910. This was Akhmet’s second deliberate imprisonment.

On March 9 1910, he was deported to Orynbor. This is the first deportation of a fighter from his homeland. He lived here until 1924. At this time, he wrote the most necessary textbooks for the Kazakh people.

In 1911, a collection of poems “Masa” was published, and the book “Forty Fables” was published for the second time. This year, the magazine “Aikap” published articles “Kazakh and various issues”, “Kazakh complaint”, “Regulations, orders on the acquisition of Kazakh land”, “Report of the bill”, “Again about the people’s court”, “About the land”, “Writing procedure”, “ About books”, “Primary school”,  etc. other topical articles are published.

In 1912, he introduced the Kazakh alphabet (directly). This year the first book of the Kazakh alphabet “Oku kuraly” (Kazakh primer practical textbook)” will be published. The magazine “Aikap” publishes articles “Regulations on the acquisition of Kazakh land”, “To Mr. Shaiziman”, “Kazakh and the Fourth Duma”.

In 1913, the second book “ Oku kuraly” (Kazakh primer practical textbook)” was published. In the magazine “Shora” “Kazakh word formationers“, in the newspaper “Kazakh” “Nomadic and sedentary norm”, “From the peasant”, “From the lease of land”, “Zemstvo(self-governing local executive administration)”, “Knowledge race”, “Studying issue” and other important articles will be published.

In 1913–1918, he revived the original name of the Kazakh people, who became Kyrgyz, and published the newspaper “Kazakh“. He is the organizer and chief expert of the newspaper. At the same time, he was imprisoned several times (1914-15) by the administration for publishing uncensored articles describing the social situation, and for the third time, according to official records.

In 1914, the first book of the Kazakh alphabet “ Oku kuraly” (Kazakh primer practical textbook)” was developed and reprinted. This year, the first annual textbook “Til-kural “(Introductory textbook to Kazakh linguistics)” (The consumption of the Kazakh language) will be published. Representatives of the older generation: “senior racehorse” by G. Karashuly; Publishes a collection of poems “Collected” by B. Utetleuov.

In 1915, the second year of “Til-kural” (Introductory textbook to Kazakh linguistics) “, the first book “Kazakh primer practical textbook” (second time); “Kazakh” newspaper published articles “Aid Committee“, “How is it?”,Economic change“, “To the wealthy citizens of Alash“.

In 1916, he took part in the census in Torgai district. This year, the first book of the practical textbook “Oku kuraly” (Kazakh primer practical textbook)   was in demand and published for the third time. Articles “Open letter to Kazakhs“, “To the citizens of Alash!”, “To the people of Torgai and Irgiz”, “Orynbor and July 8” was published.

In 1916, the Kazakh alphabet, which began recognized as the original script of the Kazakh nation, was criticized by the neighboring Muslim-Tatar nationality. At the same time, his poem “Mother tongue”, and the article “No fighting, no victories” will be published.

In 1917 in the newspaper, “Kazakh” were published “Kazakh people”, “War of this time”, “Freedom debt”, “Alash” party, “Shorai Islam. General Muslim Congress “etc. articles are published.

In 1918, the first annual textbook “Til-kural” (Introductory textbook to Kazakh linguistics) “was reprinted in Tashkent. In April of this year, he will travel to China with Mirzhakyp Dulatuly and Raimzhan Marsekov.

From 1918 to 1919, he was the leader of the Alash party, one of the leaders of the Alash-Orda government and a member of the textbook commission. This year, the article “Revolution and the Kyrgyzes” published in the “Zhizn natcionalnosti (Life of the Nationality).”

On July 24, 1919, V.I. Lenin received him and, with his approval, he was appointed a member of the Council of the Military Revolutionary Committee of the Kazakh region.

After the approval of the Amnesty Decree on October 27, 1919, a group of Kazakh intellectuals joined the Soviet government. In this case, after the election as a member of the CAUEC (Center of the All-Union Executive Committee) at the seventh All-Russian Congress of Soviets, he met the leader of the proletariat V.I. Lenin for the second time together with the chair of Kazrevcom S. Pestovsky.

On April 15, 1920, the Izvestia Kirgizskogo Kraya newspaper published an application for membership in the RCP (b) Committee. This year:

– 1st edition of “Bayanshy – (Narrator)”, “Til-kural” (Introductory textbook to Kazakh   linguistics)” (The consumption of the Kazakh language), 2nd edition of the first year, 2nd edition of “Til-kural” Introductory textbook to Kazakh linguistics” of the 2nd year.

– The second annual book ” Til-kural” (Introductory textbook to Kazakh linguistics)”will be published for the third time in April in the edition “Ushkyn” with the articles “Fifty years of Lenin”, “The Great Assembly”.

– On May 17, he wrote a letter on the thesis “On the distrust of the Soviet government to the Kazakh scholars,” and in June to the leader on the thesis “About Lenin’s nations and colonization problems.”

From 1920 to 1921, he was the Commissioner for Education of the Kazakh SSR and a member of the Kazakh Central Executive Committee (KazCEC).

Instruction manual on the Kazakh alphabet “ Oku kuraly” (Kazakh primer practical textbook)”; the first book for adults “” Oku kuraly” (Kazakh primer practical textbook)”; was published in 1921. On October 21 this year, the publication “Life of Nationalities” will publish an actual article entitled “More about hunger in Kazakhstan.”

From 1921 to 1922, he was chairperson of the Academic Center under the Regional People’s Commissariat. As the first chair of the Academic Center (Academcenter) established under the People’s Commissariat of Education, he laid the foundation for the organization of academic management of science in Kazakhstan.

– The first book “Oku kuraly” (Kazakh primer practical textbook)” for the 4th time; “Oku kuraly” (Kazakh primer practical textbook), the 4th edition of the second year; the first, second annual book ” Til-kural” (Introductory textbook to Kazakh linguistics)” for the 2nd time a year;  

– On May 18 in the newspaper “Stepnaya Pravda” will be published a speech at the 1st All-Kazakhstan Congress of Public Education, on July 14 in the newspaper “Ak Zhol” will be published an article ” About Kazakh people’s enlightenment.” In August of this year, the Tashkent intelligentsia celebrated the 50th anniversary, and in January 1923, the Orynbor Government House held a solemn meeting. On September 28, the newspaper “Stepnaya Pravda” will publish articles “Enlightenment and hunger“, “Kazakh calendar” will publish articles “Healthy body – healthy soul.”

From 1922 to 1924, he taught Kazakh language and literature at the Kazakh Institute of Public Education. He will report on “Alipbi”(Basics) at the first congress of Kazakh scholars in Orynbor.

From 1922 to 1925, he was Chairman of the Scientific and Literary Commission under the Kazakh People’s Commissariat of Education, honorary chair of the Society for the Study of the Kazakh Land.

From 1925 to 1928, he lived in Kyzylorda, the second capital of the Kazakh state, and was a leader in the work of the nation.

In 1925 in the newspaper “Akzhol” “Now it is impossible not to say” Kazakh “”, on May 19 “About Qazaqstan and Qazaghystan“; In the magazine “Zhanga Mektep” (New school)  “Tutoring school” and other topical articles are published.

On March 26, 1926, he was invited to speak at the All-Union Congress of Turkologists in Baku. In the magazine “Zhanga Mektep” “Congress of Turks”,            ” Zhelkek” (Horseradish)“; in the newspaper “Enbekshi Kazakh” publishes articles “New era of construction of Kazakhstan” (12-13 / X), “Unnecessity of the Latin alphabet”             (19 / XII).

“Alipbi-Basics”. A new manual (Kyzylorda)

 “Sauat ashkysh” (Literacy key /discoverer)”, Basics for Adults (Orynbor, Semei), 

23 zhoktau” (23 Mournings)” (Moscow), 

“Adebiet tanytkysh” (Introduction to Literature/Introduction to Literary Studies) published in Kyzylorda-Tashkent.

“Alipbi” (Basics)” The new manual will be reprinted in Kyzylorda in 1927. 

The magazine ” Zhanga Mektep ” publishes articles “Corrected letter”, “On the classification of sounds”, “Method of the native language”, “Detachment (separate) method”, in the collection “Alippe aitysy (Dispute on Primer)” “Report in support of the Arabic alphabet”.

From 1926 to 1928, he taught the Kazakh language and literature at the Kazakh Pedagogical Institute in Tashkent. In the magazine “Kyzyl Kazakhstan”, the article “How to conduct educational work among the Kazakhs?” is published.

In September 1928, he entered Almaty Kazakh State University as a professor. On November 4, the newspaper “Engbekshi (Laborer) Kazakh” will publish a congratulatory speech “Opening of the Kazakh University” and an article “On spelling.” He worked at the university until June 1929.

– In Kyzylorda “Til zhumsar” (Language deliverer)” Part 1: practical grammar for the first time;

   “Alipbi (Basics) New Manual” published for the third time.

In 1929, he published a textbook “Language deliverer” Part 2: Practical Grammar. He was invited to a meeting of writers and journalists in Kyzylorda this year and was re-arrested. This is the fourth imprisonment of this scientist.

In 1931, he was sentenced to death under the most severe paragraph of Article 58 of the Criminal Code of the RSFSR, but the sentence was reconsidered and he was sentenced to 10 years in prison and deported for the second time.

From 1931 to 1933, he was in an exile in the Belomor Canal. At the end of the year, he received a residence permit in the village of Zhukovo in the Krivoshein district of Russia, where he and his wife lived for about a year. His compatriots will publish the poems ” The feelings of arrested “,      ” To Ka … city”, “To my country mates” in the “Saryarka samal” edition on January 28, 1933.

In 1934, he was released from prison with the intervention of the Red Cross and returned to Almaty. This year he began to write a scientific work “History of the grammar of the Kazakh language.”

On December 16, 1934, he became a consultant to the Central Museum, where he worked until September 21, 1936.

In 1935, he worked as a translator in Morozov’s private clinic. On May 2 of this year, as an expert he commented on the works of the artist V.N. Khludov about the Kazakh life “Conclusion on the paintings of the artist Khludov.”

He was arrested for the fifth time on August 11, 1937, and was shot on December 8 of this year.

In short, in the statement of the politician in his article dedicated to the leader of the workers    “Fifty years anniversary of Lenin”, such a concept “… persecution in the tsarist era”   referring to the difficulties of the historical figure himself [75].

Akhmet, who devoted his life to the work of the Kazakh people and rose to the top of education in order to glorify the interests of the nation, became a victim to a totalitarian system, passing the age of Prophet. While in prison, the fighter, as his contemporaries said it, “used his kneel as the table” kept on writing philosophically and lasting to use his pen by taking care of his oppressed country until his last breath.  Akhmet Baitursynuly’s this statement is its proof:                                           “I discovered the essence of the sacred language and created science. No one writes literature for pride, it is born of character; it meets the needs of the nation. I wrote a work entitled ‘History of Literature’, which I lectured at the Kazakh People’s Commissariat of Education, in Orynbor and Kyzylorda, emphasizing that science and technology are the driving forces behind the advancement of mankind”. [83].

One month and 24 days after the decision of the Supreme Court of November 4, 1988, the results of the commission “On the creative heritage of Magzhan Zhumabayev, Akhmet Baitursynuly and Zhusupbek Aimautov” published in the central newspaper of the Communist Party “Socialist Kazakhstan” on December 28. The members of the commission are 32 people [84, 85].

After that, a series of informative information and scientific articles about Alash Arysy (Alash Pleiades) Akhmet Baitursynuly began to appear. On this day, thousands of articles and hundreds of studies have become the subject of Akhmet’s beloved and honorable name, which engraved in the memory of generations for centuries.

 

Although he was in a prison, but with his free thoughts, Akhmet’s longing for his mother turned into a poem in his heart. The text of the poem “Letter to Mother”:

 

“My dear, a gentle mother                                 

blesses her son!

I got a pen to write a letter 

to send you my love!

May Allah keep you there safe, 

may Allah keep me here safe!

I wish I could see you alive and

 healthy with the wish of Allah!

 

Unable to go, I became a liar,

Your son kept in prison in Semei.

Not guilty of cattle theft or murder.

What is the solution to the violence 

of the power?

 

There is a saying, “Let there 

be hopeless only devil.”

There are many roads,

 lead to heavens.

Shot at thirteen that

 made me think hard,

There is cureless wound

 deep in my heart.

 

Being deceived by meals 

if I forget it

Everything becomes 

haraam I eat.

Born of man, without

 human action,

How without shame 

shall I be buried?! ” –

 

Without saying too much, letting it

 in short words-

Stingy with words, your son has  

 such a strict character; 

Do not worry about me and 

do not feel nervous too much!

My son “may be falling

 into the water 

And falling into the fire”,

 mother’s fear 

 

I am sitting in a prison cell, 

stuck in my thoughts

I am convinced that 

I will die without orders.

The heavily locked door; 

many security guards,

They never let anyone

 come except death.

Surrounded by a fence,                                        

a high mound,

 Has strongly iron cage window on.

How can you not believe it 

when you see it?

Even if the enemy wants to pick it up,

 it never gives up.

 

Did the Pen forget it 

in Lauhul-Mahfuz?

It does not write to me

 to see this place.

It is a time when you weigh

 the same as tumbleweed –

There is no choice; 

if the wind blows, you follow it.

Trampled down lots of coursers 

and racehorses, 

Stuck with obstacles of the fate,

 and who gets the end?

Mine, too, not honored than

 their soul and body     

Why should I be 

then unduly depressed? [20, p. 31-32].

 

River and groundwater

“… I l find groundwater, Kazakh, similar to you,     

No efforts to try, just hopeless stay

Everyone goes ahead to the finish way,

You do not move forward even one-step away …

… My Kazakh, keep it in your mind,

This friendly advice, which can surely suit.

It is not for fun to spread my words,

I only tell my sweetheart to help.

If you lie still without moving ahead,

You will be like ground water in the end “.

 

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