Страна : Азербайджан
Автор, художественных, публицистических, историко-художественных и научно-популярных книг Рамиз Дениз 1965 г. родился в городе Баку. Член Союза Писателей Азербайджана, Общества «Тэхсил», «Общественного Объединения Помощи Развитию Науки» АГРА и Географического Общества Азербайджана. Он лауреат «Золотого пера», удостоен Президентской стипендии по литературе. В 2020 г. лауреат Международной Премии Мира в трех номинациях учрежденный Интернациональным Союзом Писателей Мира. В апреле 2021 г стал лауреатом Гран-При (по историческому роману) Международной Премии Мира. Как специалист по истории-географии он 38 лет исследует открытие Американского континента, и в отдельности Бразилии, научное наследие Насирэддина Туси, Марагинской обсерватории, некоторых исламских ученых Ближнего Востока, деятельности А.Веспуччи, тайны Х.Колумба, Португальского короля Мануэля I, адмирала П.Кабрала Д.Пирейры, Васко да Гамы, темные страницы кругосветного плавания Фернана Магеллана и разгадка открытия восточного пути Тихого океана. Все исследовании отражаются в 357 книгах вместе с переводами (русский, английский, немецкий, итальянский, испанский, португальский, французский, польский, голландский и азербайджанский), которые были изданы в Германских издательствах.
Country : Azerbaijan
The writer, researcher and publicist Ramiz Deniz. He has been a President grant holder since 2009 and he is a laureate of the “Golden pen” award. He is member of The Union of Azerbaijan Writers and Geography Society. R.Deniz has been studying geographical discoveries and their history for 38 years, and writing fictional and scientific works at the same time. His works have been entered in the libraries in Paris, London, New York, Prague, Madrid, Moscow, Beijing, Tokyo, Madrid and many other cities. Total 357 books including translations have been published in Russian, English, German, Spanish, Italian, French, Portuguese, Polish and Dutch publishing houses of Europe. Most of them are distributed by 14 large advertising companies in more than 50 foreign countries. He was winner of the international award instituted by the International Writers Union on 3 nominations in 2020 and Grand-Prix winner of the international award in 2021.
Отрывок из эссе “The mystery of Pedro Cabral’s expedition“
The navy getting lost on the ocean
The navy gets ready for the expedition under the personal supervision of the king Manuel I. Staff participated in the expedition proves that the purpose of the expedition wasn’t to carry out exploration – it had political-diplomatic and commercial characteristics. Kinds of vessels (most of them were commercial), especially the vessel of commercial representation of the king are obvious proofs of it, those vessels had to establish commercial relations with India.
Pero Vaz de Caminha, Arabian translator Al Masud (Monsaidi), who worked within the staff of Vasco da Gama, expedition’s doctor, scientist, bachelor Juanish, eight Franciscan abbots working under the leadership of Enrique de Coimbra (he would work as a vicar in Calicut) and other religious employers had been attached to the secretary of the king in order to establish relations with Indian provinces in Calicut.
In official chronicles mentioned that Pedro Alvaresh Cabral (1467-1520) left Lisbon with 13 vessels on March 9, 1500 and reached the land area, located on the western coasts of the Atlantic Ocean (the territory of today’s Porto Seguro located in Bahia), on April 22. So, discovery of Brazil was registered. But this discovery went down in history as an “accidental discovery”.
After 9 days – on May 1 – Friday Cabral decided to put wooden cross with slogan and emblem of the king of Portugal on lands he had “discovered”.
On the same day Cabral sent Gaspar de Lemos to Lisbon with his vessel in order to inform the king about lands he had “discovered”. He noted that, “discovered” territory would be called True Cross Island (“Vera Cruz”). According to historical sources, that news didn’t surprise Manuel I (1469-1521). After some time, the king changed name of that territory, called it “Santa Cruz” (Holy Cross) and informed other monarchs of Europe about this fact.
Position of the coastlines of Brazil allows to reach there by means of convenient ocean currents more easily in comparison with Angolan-Namibian coastlines of Africa. Directions of winds and currents of the Atlantic Ocean had been perfectly analyzed in the works of authoritative researchers Gagu Coutinho, Antonio Cardoza, La Graver and others. Preparation of precise weather maps shows that the ship without any navigation system could accidentally reach coastlines of Brazil. But it is not convincing that, huge navy had lost its way.
The North Passat blows from east to west, the equatorial current moves from west to east and the South Passat blows from east to west. The Passat blowing from east to west has also to be mentioned. But in spite of it, scientists use this factor – currents moving towards the west and declare that, Cabral lost his way in the ocean and reached other place.
Was it possible to change the main way as B. Dias was there? Of course, it wasn’t possible! If such serious mistake was made with participation of Dias, who knew eastern coasts of the Atlantic Ocean very well, how he could reach the Cape of Good Hope located at 10 thousand km away from Lisbon? So questions appear in accordance with that enigmatic discovery. One of main questions: might Cabral make that mistake and change the course according to the secret task of the king of Portugal Manuel I?
- P. Magidovich and V. I. Magidovich write that vessels had to sail 330 30/ towards the latitude of Pascual Mountain and it was equal to about 3700 km.
According to information given by Pero Caminha, navigators had noted in their reports that they had overcome 4000 km. Then it isn’t convincing that, Cabral changed the course directly towards the west after sailing 170 west latitude towards south.1
With a delegation of well-known travelers like Bartolommeo Dias, Diego Dias, Nicolau Coelho and Duarte Pacheco Pereira it wasn’t possible to make such mistake at the time when the navigation had developed enough. Because vessels usually sail towards the west when there is South Passat.
It is absurd to lose way when the compass is available. But it was possible from certain point of view at that time. It is possible to dodge from the fixed course when the weather is so foggy or windy, but this deviation may be 400-500 km or 600-700 km when storm is so heavy. According to diaries of the expedition, Portuguese didn’t meet any serious natural calamity before passing the equator. It means that, it was impossible to lose way as the weather was good.
So, we have to touch upon very important problem. But Portuguese changed the course towards the Cape of Good Hope located in the south of Africa after leaving “Vera-Crush” “discovered” on May 2. Though they sailed 7300 km, didn’t lose their way and reached the island soon. It means that, Portuguese navigators, who were very skilful in maneuvering in the open ocean, couldn’t reach Brazilian coasts by dodging from the main course when sailed from Green Cape Islands to the Cape of Good Hope. If it happened – if the expedition lost its way and reached Brazilian coasts, it would lose its way when sailed to the Cape of Good Hope as Portuguese sea travelers used that route for the first time.
Besides it, Portuguese put big wooden cross on the coast instead of the stone emblem indicating that mentioned territory belonged to the Portugal Kingdom. What it was? It was next negligence or discovered lands weren’t so significant? If that discovery wasn’t important for Portuguese, why did Cabral send one of vessels, which had to sail to India to Lisbon in order to give information about the discovery? It means that, the discovery of Brazil had been planned beforehand and the world community had to be informed about it.
Bulls of Popes or division of the world
The bull “Dum diversas” was signed on June 18, 1452 and it was the first historical document on division of the world. The Pope Nicolas V noted in his bull (“Inter caetera”) signed on January 8, 1455 that, monopoly of the trade with African coasts belonged to Portuguese.
The Atlantic Ocean was divided into two parts in accordance with the treaty concluded in Alcasovas in 1479 in 4 September. The Pope Sixtus IV invited both parties to negotiations on June 21, 1481 in order to confirm the treaty of Alcasovas and acquainted them with the bull “Aeterni Regis”.
The king Alfonso V, who gave up his demands for territories of Castilia could get very convenient privileges for Portugal: Canaries remained as the property of Castilia, but Azores and Madeira Islands were registered as the inseparable territory of Portugal. Spanish vessels hadn’t to go below the 28th parallel of the north hemisphere when organized any expedition. Half of the Floridian Peninsula, Anthill Islands, Mexico, Panama and South America became property of Portugal in theory.
Christopher Columbus completed his first travel to coasts of the New World on March 15, 1493. It means that, Spaniards might reach lands located in the western part of the Atlantic Ocean unexpectedly. Because territories located below 280 east latitude belonged to the Portugal throne according to the treaty signed in Alcasovas. In spite of it, Spaniards couldn’t sail below the 28th parallel and tried to conceal it.
As it is known, the bull “Inter caetera” signed by the Pope Alexander VI less than two months after the discovery of the New World coasts – on May 4, 1493 at the urgent request of Spanish monarchs surprised Portuguese.
It was noted in the document that, islands and large land area located in the west towards India, in the place where vessels didn’t pass should be given to Spanish kings. The pontificator, who didn’t want to irritate Portuguese, mentioned that, Portuguese would have authorities in Africa, Guinea and Gold Coast (the coast line located in the north of the gulf of Guinea) and Spaniards would have same authorities in lands located on the other side of the ocean.
According to this document, all territories located at 100 liq west of Azores became property of Spaniards at the result of Columbus’s travel. Agreeing with such division minimized activity of Portuguese in the Atlantic Ocean. Following question occurred: if there isn’t any large territory having strategic importance and significant geographical location in the west of the mentioned demarcation line and below 280 east latitude, what is the significance of the endless ocean? According to the inormation of Portugals there is no any land in the west of Atlantic. Expeditions of Vogado (1462), Telles and van Olmen (1487) couldn’t achieve any success in mentioned parts of the ocean.
It has been proved that, Juan II and his cosmographers had some cartographic information about the location of the Spice Islands (Maluku Islands) and they even knew their coordinates. So, undoubtedly, when negotiations about the Treaty of Tordesillas (1494) got started, Juan II already had some valuable geographical knowledge and many materials unlike leaders of Castile.
Christopher Columbus began his second travel towards coasts of the New World with 17 vessels and 1500 persons on September 25, 1493, when the representative of Portuguese was on his way to Tordesillas. Before this event, in July Alexander Borgia published the third copy of his bull signed on May 3 with the name “Eximiae devotionis”. This document offered compromise for both parties.
Before parties solved the problem without interference of the Pope, Alexander VI issued his fourth bull in December, 1493 with the name “Dudum siquidem” and showed its date as September 25. After that document was issued, Portuguese protested against the Pope as all territories between the demarcation line and eastern part of India had become property of Spain. Nevertheless, India was the territory of Portugal in accordance with the treaty of Alcasovas and Spaniards had agreed with that document. Portuguese noted that, the present treaty was against their interests. They hadn’t any way for sailing to India as Bartolommeo Dias (1488) had discovered remote western point of Africa before the travel of Columbus and had found way out to the Indian Ocean.
The Portugal king Juan II didn’t want to declare his dissatisfaction at first, but after several months he began to defend de facto rights concerning those lands taking into consideration the treaty signed in 1481. After it, the Pope was obliged to look through his decision again, invited parties to negotiations after a year, on May 4 and made concessions to Portuguese. A month after that date, on June 7, Alexander VI made some changes on the treaty signed a year ago in Tordesillas, made some concessions and ratified that document. Catholic monarchs signed the treaty on July 2 and ratification seal was put on September 5 in Portugal (Pope Yuli II gave permission in 1506).
The treaty of Tordesillas may be considered a victory of Portuguese as the demarcation line was moved for 100 liq towards the west from Azores in accordance with Spaniards’ offer in 1493 and for 370 liq (490 32/ 56// west longitude) towards the west from Azores in accordance with Portuguese’s insistence.
In a word, Spain was considered owner of America except Brazil and Portugal was considered owner of Africa and India according to the Pope’s bull.1
Thus, political geography of coasts of the New World was founded and the Pope sealed it up.
Special commission of Portuguese and Spaniards had to determine location of the demarcation line before the end of 1495 in accordance with the treaty of Tordesillas. But this task couldn’t be fulfilled because of the discontent between Spaniards and Portuguese cosmographers (The conflict occurred between two kingdoms in 1512 for lands located in South America as it was expected).1
Thus, Portuguese swindled Spaniards by means of the Pope Alexander Borgia VI and appropriated Brazil which’s total area was equal to 8,5 million square kilometers. That unjust division disclaimed efforts of Spaniards as Brazilian coasts were visited by Spanish sea travelers Vicente Pinson and Diego Lepe for the first time.
It, of course, bothered king of Portugal. That’s why, Cabral’s expedition had to discover Brazil in any way. N. S. Constantinova wrote: “After Portuguese received news that, Pinson approached Brazilian coasts on January 20 and Lepe did it on February 16, additional task also was given to the expedition”. 1
Portuguese should be grateful to Duarte Pereira, but not Pedro Cabral for being owner of Latin America. Most seamen weren’t successful in discovering lands in the west of the Atlantic Ocean though following task was given to them. But Pereira could achieve mentioned goal. The experienced captain discovered lands, which were very important for the king Juan II, and could return to Europe before next negotiations held with Spaniards. Besides it, he participated in negotiations held in Tordesillas and swindled Spaniards by means of the Pope. The captain was obliged to keep this secret till the day he died.
Spanish monarchs began to send different expeditions to coasts of South America and especially Brazil after the treaty of Tordesillas was concluded. Vicente Pinson went ashore and started exploration works at 80 south latitude, Diego Lepe at 100, 50 30/ south latitude, Bartolome Roldan at 50 30/ south latitude, Alonso de Mendoza at 70 south latitude. Vicente Pinson, Diego Lepe, Pedro Alonso Nino and Alonso Okheda explored Brazilian coasts on the north-west after they went ashore, but Alonso de Mendoza did it on the south-west. Even Pedro Alonso Nino explored those territories on the west of the demarcation line.