Эльмира Жумабаева

Страна: Казахстан 

Жумабаева Эльмира Махметовна Родилась 2 сентября 1978г. в г.Атырау (г.Гурьев). Магистр гуманитарных наук, старший преподаватель кафедры «Изобразительное искусство и дизайн» (НАО – «Атырауский университет имени Х.Домухамедова»). Стипендиат международной президентской программы «Болашак» (Великобритания. Магистратура. MA – Education Leadership and Management). Обладатель гранта докторантуры (PhD) Назарбаев университета. Художник-пастелист, Член союза художников Республики Казахстан, Член Евразийской Гильдии (Лондон), Член cоюза художников Республики Кипр, Член международного независимого фонда женщин художников MНЖФХ «Тан-Шолпан», Лауреат Гран-при международного творческого фестиваля «Шабыт-VI». Член правления, секретарь союза Атырауских художников Республики Казахстан. Творческое направление: импрессионизм, постимпрессионизм, модернизм. Работает в жанрах: портрет, натюрморт, интерьер. Участница и дипломант городских, республиканских, международных выставок, симпозиумов и пленэров. Имеет благодарственные письма, грамоты, и дипломы за вклад в отечественное изобразительное искусство и образование Республики Казахстан. Автор 186 произведений изобразительного искусства, одной монографии и научных статей на темы искусства и образования. Исследовательский интерес в изобразительном искусстве: Французское искусство 19-20 веков, творчество, меценатство в искусстве; в образовании – лидерство и управление, распределенное лидерство. Работы находятся в собраниях музея изобразительного и декоративно-прикладного искусства имени Ш.Сариева (г. Атырау), Современного музея города Астаны, Музея изобразительного искусства Республики Кипр (г. Никосия), а также, в частных и государственных коллекциях ближнего и дальнего зарубежья (Казахстан, Россия, Англия, Швеция, Азербайджан), в частности, работы находятся в собраниях мецената Суата Гюнселя (меценат Республики Кипр, г.Никосия) и Кристиана Камила (экс посол посольства Швеции в Республики Казахстан).

Country: Kazakhstan

Elmira Zhumabayeva She was born on September 2, 1978, in Atyrau (former Guryev city). Master of Humanities, Senior Lecturer of the Department of Fine Arts and Design (NAO – Atyrau University named after Kh. Domukhamedov). A scholar of the Bolashak international presidential program (Great Britain. Master’s degree. MA – Education Leadership and Management). A holder of a PhD grant from Nazarbayev University. Pastel artist, Member of the Union of Artists of the Republic of Kazakhstan, Member of the Eurasian Guild (London), Member of the Union of Artists of the Republic of Cyprus, Member of the International Independent Fund for Women Artists of the MNZHFH “Tan-Sholpan”, Winner of the Grand Prix of the International Creative Festival “Shabyt-VI”. Member of the Board, Secretary of the Union of Atyrau Artists of the Republic of Kazakhstan. A creative direction: impressionism, post-impressionism, modernism. She works in the genres: portrait, still life, interior. A participant and student of local, republican, international exhibitions, symposiums and plein airs. She has letters of thanks, certificates, and diplomas for her contribution to the domestic fine arts and education of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Author of 186 works of fine art, and the author of one monograph and scientific articles on art and education. Research interest in fine arts: French art of the 19th-20th centuries, creativity, patronage in art; in education – leadership and management, distributed leadership. The cretive works are in the collections of the Museum of Fine and Decorative and Applied Arts named after Sh. Sariev (Atyrau), the Modern Museum of the City of Astana, the Museum of Fine Arts of the Republic of Cyprus (Nicosia), as well as in private and public collections of near and far abroad ( Kazakhstan, Russia, England, Sweden, Azerbaijan), in particular, the works are in the collections of philanthropist Suat Günsel (philanthropist of the Republic of Cyprus, Nicosia) and Christian Kamil (ex-ambassador of the Swedish Embassy in the Republic of Kazakhstan).

Отрывок из академической работы ”An analysis and discussion of  the crucial role of the dealer Ambroise Vollard  in  contributing to the oeuvre of  French artist Paul Cezanne”

 

Abstract

This article discusses the lifelong enthusiasm of the art dealer Ambroise Vollard in the sponsoring of the oeuvre of French artist Paul Cezanne. Their relationship that  interpreted   as being two unique persons who revolutionized modern art, as asserted by  scholars in the  scientific literature. Championing the oeuvre of Cezanne, Vollard’s passion for  the art  has been considered  through the prism of different strategies, especially  glancing   into every facet of  the career of the art dealer: from the beginning of rejecting from a career of lawyer and opening his own art gallery  including   sponsoring Cezanne. Discussion of some of the facts relating to the rapid growth of sales of Cezanne’s works and their popularity is an attempt to comprehend the existence of the  marketing bridge between dealer and painter which might  have been  established  by the efforts of both parties. This paper aims to discuss the crucial role of Vollard according to scientific findings who had an incredible instinct on talents. This is the key issue discussed with an emphasis on co-operation with international collectors. 

Key words: art dealer, Ambroise  Vollard, success, Paul Cezanne, painting, art

 

Introduction

The professional activity of an art dealer typically occurs  among creative individuals. According to Cellini and Cuccia (2013) an art dealer is the link between an artist and museums or art lovers.  In the scientific literature  and  articles on art,  such  relationship  among  both  art dealer and  artist  are  considered as a marketing channel. In the simplest case, artistic works are  transferred to  the art dealer who sells them  to collectors or museums.  In addition, the function of the art dealer is not just selling the artist’s works Cellini and Cuccia (2013).  From scholars’  viewpoints it is a complex mechanism.  But,  one  major function of  the art dealer  has always been  to represent the interest of the artist for  the building of  creative  and financial success.

               According to Harris et al. (2013), the first art dealers of the late of 19th century in the so-called  Gilded Age appeared  with opening of  photographic studios  and  art shops. They  influenced  on the  course of the  development of art history having established the place of an artist in both socially and economically.  However, there is no precise data relating to dealers’ activities (Harris et al., 2013).  As a result, only catalogues of exhibitions, newspaper advertising and  directories  can give substantial information. This is seemed to be one positive aspect which gives  the opportunity to evaluate the work of art dealers. 

               As far as  the activity of art dealers  in  society  is being discussed,  artists and collectors  have been equally  interested in co-operation.  Such cooperation has been caused by the factors, namely: the    emergence  of  the  impressionist  movement,  the enormous of numbers of creative persons, and also by society’s direct interest  to the art  Howard (n.d). Therefore, art dealers undoubtedly could  be   the essential  link not only in sales but they also  had become to  serve as   the informative bridge of existing requirements between customers and artists.

               In this essay the relationship between  the art dealer Ambroise Vollard and  French artist Paul Cezanne well be  discussed as  the two main  figures of  the period of  radical changes  in  art of  the last 19th century with an emphasis  on  collectors . For this reason, understanding their roles  and  the success of both  are the key  aspect.  Even though Vollard and Cezanne had mutual passion to the art, resources show that it can be interpreted differently,  probably because of  personal values of both ​​in relation to art. 

 

The collecting of artistic works  as a  new phenomenon

Historically, research investigating the factors about French art of the late of the 19th century  is associated with the  boom of new art movements,  the emergence of bright artists,  collectors, and also galleries and auctions. It seems that  business collecting  of artworks  has become  a  completely  new  phenomenon in which there has been established  the  mutual relation between artists  and  art dealers, and also collectors. The collecting, according to Harris et al. (2013), is   considered the norm and thus it has allowed  them to  have a certain status in society.  However,  a broader perspective has been adopted by  historian  Dickinson who asserted  another point of view:  persons who dealt with art,  collected  artworks  for some reasons:  either  for  a pastime or for gaining  thrills  because  they were  owners  of rare and valuable artworks (Dickinson, as cited in Harris et al., 2013).  In addition,  he notes that  the wealthier  also viewed  the art of collecting paintings  as an  additional opportunity  for  gaining profit.  As evidence, he provided European art and private art galleries of rich people  of   New York, Chicago which  became  in that times  the fashionable tendency and  the desirable place for  socializing.  As a result of the surge of art lovers among the rich between 1870 and 1914,  the collecting of artistic works  become to  be  considered  as a new phenomenon (Harris et al., 2013).  The evidence from this study suggests that certain self-minded  individuals wanted to invest in artworks of artists. This is evident in the case of  Ambroise Vollard’s activity as a financial sponsor who  at age 29 championed  the  career of the unknown then Cezanne, and collected his paintings, according to Lethbridge (2016). What is more, since  the art dealer had  the direct access  to  the Cezanne’s workshop from 1895 (McCaughey, 2007),  he  became the  direct witness of  birth of  678 paintings  of  the master  created in different  periods (Lethbridge, 2016). It seems that Vollard was not afraid to take risks by buying works of  the unknown Сezanne. In addition, his wide range of  interests  as an outstanding publisher and an entrepreneur allowed him to collaborate  with other artists  (Moma, 1977).  In  this case, a possible explanation for  the  behavior  of Vollard  may be  the obsession with art and his foresight of the value of Cezanne’s paintings.

                Another findings,  according to the archival data  of Museum d’ Orsay (n.d) are that Vollard  had  the habit to purchase  a lot paintings, but in some cases was rather selective. Moreover, Sloan (2007) highlights that manners of his behaviour with artists and collectors that were  equally  incomprehensible and  bizarre.  However,  every  artist in appreciation of the help that Vollard  gave to  artists wished to create his image (Museum d’ Orsay, n.d).  Pablo Picasso once said such words: “The most beautiful woman who ever lived never had her portrait painted, drawn, or engraved more often than Vollard – by Cezanne, Renoir, Roussel, Bonnard, Forain, almost everybody” (Moma, 1977, p.1). These examples  demonstrate  how Vollard might used  different innovative  strategies and approaches  in  his  unprecedented career  of the art dealer that had become the major factor, if not the only one, led  to  the marked upsurge of the significance of creative labor of Paul Cezanne and other artists. Therefore, Vollard  could be considered  as  a  phenomenal personality  who set up  new perspectives for creative persons. In so doing, what remains true is that Vollard owing to his talent, intuition and the inner sensitivity became the  first art dealer who revolutionized  the art market (Museum d’Orsay, n.d).

 

 

 

Strategies  of  Ambroise Vollard under the motto

“Buy low – sell high”

 

Existing research recognizes the crucial role played by Ambroise Vollard in the oeuvre of Cezanne. One major  aspect in early Vollard’s activity conducted  by Stark (2015) is  his  first experience in gallery in Paris “L’Union artistique”. He asserts that  the gallery can be  considered  as  the precursor for new tendencies in the art  environment and the beginning of the establishing of  the relationship  between Cezanne, and later by other  artists. One question that needs to be asked, however, is whether he rather quick outgrown  from young  lawyer in the  famous art dealer. Undoubtedly, Vollard  set  up his career in the art  not without the obstacles. 

                Innovative mechanisms themselves in the art market of the last 19th century that were  implemented  by the art dealer perhaps the most  likely   answer   of this  question.  But,  the increase of the international art trade, and the popularity of travelling  also  become  the result  of  the success of Vollard as an art dealer. Sloan (2007) argues that Vollard’s achievements in the history of art are unjustly underestimated. She asserts that Vollard’s personality can be fully assessed through viewing the cubist portrait that was painted by Picasso in order to comprehend his uniqueness. The conclusions of these  facts of research can be summarized, by stating that the  number  of issues regarding the overarching strategies of the art dealer used by him  in the profession and  also the enormous passion for Cezanne’s artistic works had resulted in his lucrative career.

                On balance, he became a giant in  modern art (Museum d’Orsay, n.d). Cezanne once said: Vollard  by one glance could appreciate a work of artist.  According to Stevenson (2008), Vollard  purchased  Cezanne’s  150 paintings,  which were  exhibited  in his own gallery in 1895 to the  address 39 rue Laffitte. One reason why Vollard  acquired artworks  is that  he might  have been obsessed  by art and  experienced a  sympathy for  Cezanne.  On the other hand, for example, Stevenson (2008) describes Vollard as  ‘a blind collector’ referring to the fact  that  possibly   Vollard relied more  on intuition  when had purchased  paintings. Therefore, despite the different interpretations Vollard is viewed  as a sensitive  person and a visionary art dealer (Stevenson, 2008). These facts  support the view that perhaps Vollard  felt  that Cezanne was  an unique  artist   and  anticipated  the surge  of  his career.

                In that sense, assessing the value  of the role  of Ambroise  in Cezanne’s creation is most crucial and needs to be better  understood. In a study conducted by Neuendorf (2016), it was shown that the work of the art dealer  like a one main component of the  huge art machine. Accordingly,  Vollard  comprehended the art  to sake the possibilities to  deeply  learn the place of an artist as socially as economically.  To examine this explanation in the second part of the article – Dealer’s choice or no choice, McCaughey (2007)  writes:  ‘the iron law of dealing: buy low and sell high’. A possible explanation for this might be that an active sponsorship position of Vollard in regards to  the oeuvre of  Cezanne parallely  influenced on the consumer art market  at which  the   mechanisms   of  work  depended  on a row of factors, including  artworks which had been sold  openly to collectors (Harris & Zucker, n.d).  Clearly that Vollard as no one else  felt  the spirit of the time that further support the idea of the  emergence  parallel  of sufficient mass merchants and collectors.  These results suggest that he was so interested  in  the  art that his art gallery soon became the center of the Parisian contemporary art market.

 

Selling of Cezanne’s works

In the art scientific resources  Ambroise Vollard is described  as  the  one of the  dealers of the revolution in the art world, a revolution in the minds of millions of people. This is only one type of  achievement that  have led  to both the art dealer  and the artist  to the peak of their extraordinary  career (Moma, 1977). Similarly, in the artistic field, his unprecedented  gestures as a patron is an innovative aspect and  the theme  of  exhibitions (Sloan, 2007). Therefore, it is not surprising that their efforts as a result led to collaboration  with overseas collectors.  The  art historical materials show in details  a variety of co-operation of Vollard with collectors. Wallace, (2007) indicates that Vollard  determined the  place of Cezanne as an artist  internationally by using different forms strategies. For  instance,  Sloan (2007) and  McCaughey (2007) describe  in details  how barons and baroness’, namely,  Gertrude Stein, Louisine Havemeyer, Ivan Morosov  communicated with Vollard at the time of purchasing  of  the product of art.  These facts  help to understand the model of collaboration with collectors  that has been used by Vollard. Similarly, the significant analyses and discussion on the subject were  presented by Harris (2013)  in which  that so-called  the monied class during 1870 till 1914 actively collected  the works of artists.  This draws a pattern that combined with evidence from study by  Harris and Zucker (1984)  show  a growing interest  of the rich  to  the  artistic works. Hence, in this case, the rich sponsored many  artists of Gilded Age and  were one of the first who launched  a  process of  maintaining of an intellectual labor  in close collaboration  with  art dealers.  This provides some support for the conceptual premise that  Vollard  could  on  a  regular basis  supply creative works  to potential clients  locally and  internationally (Wallace, 2007).  Hence, it could conceivably be hypothesized that  he  boosted  the career of an art dealer and  the oeuvre of Cezanne, and also  established  the links with  many well-known collectors  with efficient results for all parties.  In that case there is no doubt  that  the mechanism of work  between   art galleries, art dealers and  collectors has  determined    the social status of the  artist. Owing to this,   an artist  became to be considered as an person the aim of whom  is to  serve to  the  art.   Apart from this,   financial independence   of artists, perhaps  also was one of the  major factors of the   sharp  increase of   the significance of  creative  works  on  the  threshold of the 20th century. For this reason,  such type of mutual relations between Vollard and  Cezanne could  considerably evolve  the art   in  which  the sales of artworks peaked  which  has not been noted  prior. That is why the vast majority of Cezanne’s artworks are in the collections of American, Russian  museums and also in private galleries.  In this case, it is very important to stress that the efforts of Vollard that were set up with international collectors is a result of  the  creative success of Cezanne.

 

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