Страна: Кыргызстан

Меня зовут Мамбаева Салтанат, я из Кыргызстана. Я переводчик, филолог и преподаватель по профессии, и всеми этими тремя сферами занимаюсь в течении уже 30 лет. Долгое время я была устным переводчиком синхронистом, и вот последние 7-8 лет начала заниматься письменным художественным переводом.. поэзию перевожу. и пришла к переводу кыргызского эпоса на английский в 2019 году.. и в 2021 году закончила перевод малого эпоса Эр Тоштюк. Хотя он и считается малым эпосом по сравнению с эпосом Манас, его объем составляет более 16500 стихотворных строк. Это очень интересный и довольно таки известный эпос в тюркоязычных странах. Больше известен как сказка, а у кыргызов оно стало эпическим, героическим произведением дошедшим до нас в устном виде, через акынов сказителей. Мой перевод Эр Тоштюка это первый построчный перевод на английский язык в поэтической форме, где я попыталась сохранить все элементы текста оригинала т.к. до этого были переводы данного эпоса, но в сокращенном и прозаическом виде только.- как сказка, части эпоса, как былина. Исследования по данному эпосу есть, но их пока очень мало, думаю что при его прочтении на английском им заинтересуются многие ученые в мире.

Country: Kyrgyzstan 

My name is Saltanat Mambaeva, for many years I was working as an oral interpreter and simultaneous translator. But at the same time I was doung my researcjs in philology and linguistics. Just around 7-8 years I have started to translate in written form some poetry, and the other day I came to the small Kyrgyz epic Er Toshtuk. I have translated it during 2 years, as it consist of 16500 poetic lines. I have translated it from Kyrgyz into English, not asit was done before translations from Russian into other languages.The original iin the Kyrgyz is quite difficult, even for modern Kyrgyz people to understand, but , thanks to my knowledge, and my collegues whom i wa consulting from time to time in 2021 I have finished it. Hope that after reading this epic in the English there will appear a lot of schlars who will be interestedd in this epic, as there no so much researches of it in the wolrd.

Отрывок из перевода “Er Toshtuk”





At the great memorial toi [1]

to mark the passing of Kökötai Khan,

Muslims gathered alongside infidels

at a magnificent feast.

The ground boiled

as they moved across it like black worms,

filling its every space

until there was nowhere left to step,

nor room to swing an ukuruk[2]

Neither the Muslims nor the infidels

paid any attention to the hero Manas,

who astride his horse, led the procession

of the century’s most powerful fighters.

With no space for horses nor load-bearing beasts

in the tightly- bound throng,

everyone had been made to follow on foot.

The most famous of the century’s fighters,

Kökötai’s aide Bokmurun,

then announced to one and all:

-Gather round and hear what I have to say.

It was my lord khan’s wish

that his vision should be remembered

well into the next century.

Hence, he set aside over a thousand camels

and dug gold from the earth

as prizes for Muslims and infidels

participating in games at his toi. –

Eager to compete against each other,

one fighter stepped forward from the infidels,

and another, from the Muslims.

They would fight to stay on their feet

but whilst the winner would become rich,

the loser would leave with nothing at all.

-If God is on your side – announced Bokmurun

-You will leave this wake

with a handsome reward of many cattle. –

Spurred by his words,

and keen to benefit from Kökötai’s bequest,

in came the Manchjur fighter Nescara

and then, the Kalmak’s heroic Khan Joloy.

The most renowned fighter of the time,

Joloy’s fame had spread far and wide.

No rival had ever beaten him

and that path stayed open when yet again,

he won the fight against Nescara.

Khan Joloy, who had fought with dragons,

killed fighters with proficient ease.

For seven years, he had walked around,

sharpening his swords,

and had once knocked down

seventy fighters in one go.

Able to consume seven whole bags of wheat,

Joloy’s body smelled of yeast,

and after butchering and eating

seventy cattle at one sitting,

Joloy’s body smelled of blood.

Everyone could see he was a mighty fighter,

but no great horseman.

There was no one like Joloy.

His lips were too thick to ever close

and his moustache was as straight

as the handle of a sword.

He was bare-footed and bare-headed,

and his eyesight was sharp and strong.

No one dared get in his way,

for as a fighter of extraordinary power,

he had conquered innumerable opponents.

-Kökötai has laid out numerous prizes

which I alone, will claim! –

announced the great fighter,

-I need a contestant, but be warned:

I will take out anyone who fights me,

by throwing him down like a goat!

If I exert my power to the full,

I can pull off his arms and legs,

then tear him into small pieces.

Whenever enemies gather in the false belief

that they can overpower the world,

I tear their heroes’ heads from their bodies,

then in a trail of bloodshed, kill them all!

I will never flee from a fight,

but whether Burut or Kalmak,

I will compete with my opponents fairly. –

Let me tell you about Joloy.

In any game of Kok Boru,[3]

he would be sure to go through over sixty goats!

He had the body of an ox,

and the most powerful legs and hands,

so, who would put his life on the line,

by daring to fight him?

Stripping off his shirt, pale with dust,

the mighty Kalmak[4] Joloy got ready

to wrestle his opponent from his horse,

Eager to fight,

Joloy began to shout in his powerful voice:

-Come on heroes! –

Oh, you should have seen Joloy!

Compared to all the other fighters,

he looked like a wild grey boar,

and even those taller and smarter,

cowed at the prospect of battling him.

But one, willing to risk his life, announced:

-I’ll take part in this contest. –

Broad-shouldered, stocky and muscular,

his dark demeanor instilled fear

in all who saw him.

Standing before him like a rugged mountain,

the Kalmaks’ most notorious fighter,

struck a deal by calling him over.

Amidst the dust swirling across the earth,

the infidel and Muslim stood opposite each other

but when directly faced with Khan Joloy,

the mighty fighter shuddered and gasped:

-Who gave birth to a hero such as this? –

The Muslims gathered at the wake of Kökötai

watched as Joloy was given ayran[5],

then Koshoy, the eldest of them all, cried:

-Who will come out to fight with him?

Is there anyone brave enough to take him on? –

All of the Muslims looked at him

as if sentenced to death,

piquing the interest of the gathered throng.

Manas had set up camp on the perimeter.

His horse Akkula and forty other stallions

were tethered on one side,

whilst on the other, sat his forty choros[6]

looking for something to amuse them.

Just then, Seregi, one of Manas’ soldiers declared:

-Didn’t you hear the announcement

that the great fighter Joloy is here? –

When they heard this news,

all of the choros immediately leapt up,

and rushing forth like a dragon,

Manas put on his akölpök [7]and mounted his aybanboz[8]

ready to lead his men

towards the indignant throng

gathered at the side of the lake.

Notoriously fearless in the face of death,

his choros were curious to see

the fighter waiting to take them on.

Manas’ forty wolves were well-known heroes.

Included in their number were

Kyzyl Chal, Bozuul, Kytynai, Kambyl.

and Karajoltoy, the ‘bloody one’.

Adjibay and Bakan belonged to the same clan,

Almanbet and Chubak were twins,

and Serek and Syrgak were equal in age.

Sitting astride his aybanboz

Manas furiously yelled at his choros,

Kyrgyz and Bakai alike,

to get on their feet.

All forty instantly obeyed;

and stood to attention, awaiting his command.

Manas then announced:

-So, Joloy, you have come to claim all the prizes,

but we Muslims and all who align with us,

will stop you!

When called upon, they will react in an instant

and nothing or no one can kill my choros! –

As the choros waited to see

who would be summoned by Manas,

twelve men sent by the Muslim khans,

walked out in line,

to stand before the groaning crowd.

-In response to your request,

here are mighty fighters ready to fight! –

Gigantic in stature, they included

Arstan, Chybak and Almambet.

To the right of Koshoy Aksakal[9],

stood the nephew of Khan Jügörü.

Distinguished by his chiseled brown face,

he had a powerful, strong body,

and the very best stallion.

-You can outfight all other fighters,

so, will be served a special dish

devoted only to you!

Over six months of fighting,

you have overthrown your every opponent,

and thus, already proved

that you have the power to fight

any infidel and even Muslims…

But today, at Kökötai’s toi,

and in front of this vast crowd,

you will face the tightest challenge

for your component Joloy

is the mightiest and bravest of all! –

No one had ever seen as many fine prizes

as those so generously contributed

by Kökötai for this contest:

Over a thousand two-humped camels,

each black with white stars on their foreheads,

and a further thousand mares from Andijan,

with brown and yellow spots on their backs,

had been brought together

to realize Kökötai’s vision

of the most magnificent toi anyone had ever attended.

Imagine how you would feel,

if arriving at that memorial toi,

you were expected battle gigantic fighters?

As soon as he saw the mountainous Joloy

Jügörü’s nephew was so afraid,

that he wanted to saddle his horse and run!

Turning to Manas, he pleaded:

-I beg your permission not to fight Joloy

since with no chance of survival,

I would lose face in front of my people.

If this angers you, my dear hero,

then draw your sword and take off my head!

But if you insist that I fight him,

then for heaven’s sake, promise me,

that you yourself will bury my body!

I am the only one left in my family’s nest,

I have no living relatives

and my people are far away.

If I were to die at the hands of this Kalmak,

there would be no one around to bury me

nor smooth my torn body with sheep fat.

Left out on the dusty road,

I would become fodder for snakes.

I am like a young horse and am all alone,

so, have no hope of beating

that roaring and mountainous infidel.

Cut off my head with your own hands, Manas,

but I will not fight that balban Joloy! –

-You have failed my expectations-

retorted Manas angrily,

-for despite being the nephew of Khan-Jügörü

you are watery-hearted, as timid as a woman

and deserve to be taken by God! –

Moving on to the next warrior,

Manas told Ÿrbu:

-Throughout the two kemins[10],

you are renowned for breeding and training trotters

and the rice you plant in autumn.

Your rich tongue is highly respected,

for you are the only one

who can speak directly to the khan.

You have lived alone in a cave,

within the forest you use as a home.

So, Ÿrbu, son of Eibit,

are you prepared to take on this fighter?

Will you be the one to challenge

the great rocky mountain Joloy?

Give him a taste of your fighting prowess,

so that at worst, he runs away!

Wouldn’t you rather be dead, Ÿrbu,

than tarnish your reputation? –

But Ÿrbu replied:

-Oh, my Khan, what are you saying?

You undervalue me my lord!

I have broken rocks to become rich!

I was alone but now I am wealthy

and surrounded by friends!

I have achieved success

from breeding deer and kulali[11]

and from a patchwork of communities,

have gathered and unified my people.

I cannot win these prizes

for I will not fight this Kalmak,

and die by Joloy’s hand!

Joloy could tear off my head with ease

and if I died in this fight,

my people would spend a lot on my funeral,

then perhaps be forced to flee

to different corners of the world!

Once split up, they would disperse

to faraway places where only kulalies live!

If you order me to fight this Kalmak,

the belt of Ÿrbu will break,

and my people will be punished by God! –

Deeply disappointed by Ÿrbu’s reluctance,

Manas moved further along his line of heroes

until he reached the Kazakh khan Kökchö.

with whom he had travelled widely.

Hailing from Aidarkan in Sary Arka,

the hero Kökchö was heavily built.

Nourished by thick broths and fatty meat,

he was picky about grain and ate only

shining white barley as hard as a stone.

Praising the girlish appearance of his wife,

and his renown as an unbeaten fighter,

Manas, as the father of Kökötai’s clan,

then asked Kökchö:

-Are you ready to join the throng

eager to compete for the prizes

offered at Kökötai’s memorial feast?

Are you prepared, my hero,

to fight such an experienced guy as Joloy?

Are you ready to face him,

seize the chance of throwing him down

and collect the highest fighting prize?

Of all the Kazakhs, I see you Kökchö

as the most suitable match for Joloy.

What do you think?

Can you fight like a lion against him?

Can you tear him apart like a hungry wolf?

You could prove yourself a real fighter

if you stopped him in his tracks,

then grabbing him by his belt,

threw him down on the sharp-stony ground! –

But in response, Kökchö began to murmur:

“I’ve got land in Sary Arka

on which numerous people make a living.

You’d love for me, Kökchö, to fight Joloy.

You’d love to deliver me

to the clutches of that lion Joloy.

But afterwards, when things calm down,

you’d love to take my land

and become an Akyn [12]for my Kazakh mates!

Oh, my Lord Manas,

you’d love to make me to fight with Joloy,

but he’d take off my head

and my people would instantly lose face! –

Once again, Manas was furiously disappointed:

-The Kökchö I knew, was a real hero,

but despite your loud voice,

you’re now like the meekest woman

I’ve ever encountered!

The Kökchö I knew, fought countless heroes,

but it appears he is dead and gone forever!

Do you recognize that loss?

Do you see how your refusal

to go anywhere near that fighter,

eats at my soul

and by upsetting the Lord,

will be punished from above? –

Moving to Jamgyrchy, the next in line,

Manas announced:

-I’ve heard you’re the bravest son of Jeti-Özöng,

and astride your white- striped horse,

instill the fear of the devil in your enemies.

Your fighting skills are big enough,

but your heroism differs from others

for barely motionless, your sword swings,

killing and emptying the earth

of everyone around you.

To everyone here, your name Jamgyrchy

speaks of your renowned talents,

so, before the crowds gathered

at Kökötai’s memorial feast,

and for the sake of our Muslim ancestors,

are you ready to fight this balban? –

As Jamgyrchy gazed around him,

his legs began to shake and his heart raced.

-Oh, Manas, father of Kökötai’s clan,

I came to this memorial toi as an observer,

never expecting to meet my death.

Pluck out my eyes,

kill me with your own hands,

but don’t make me fight Joloy,

and die by his hand! –

Cursing Jamgyrchy for his refusal to fight Joloy,

Manas then moved in on Töshtük:

– Er Töshtük, I’m so glad to see you here!

You look great my dear hero!

There are fewer Muslims than expected,

so, it is good that you are on their side.

I know you are their best swordsman,

more skilled than any other.

I have also heard you are the bravest.

My dear Er Töshtük,

if you were willing to demonstrate that courage,

I would love you to compete.

If you were to put your neck on the line,

by fighting that mighty balban[13], Töshtük,

you would be sure to fell the Kalmak hero.

You are the youngest of nine brothers, Töshtük.

You are blessed by God, Töshtük.

You are the favoured son of Elaman, Töshtük.

You are our protector, Töshtük.

You are the Muslim’s hero, Töshtük.

No one has broader shoulders than you, Töshtük.

You are the best horseman, Töshtük,

Nature has nurtured you well, my dear Töshtük;

for it made you a hero, my dear Töshtük.

You are as fresh as the morning breeze, Töshtük,

and my closest ally, Töshtük.

You alone, have spent six months in the desert, Töshtük.

You alone, have travelled to other lands, Töshtük.

You are a patriot of your people, Töshtük,

and a close friend to all, Töshtük.

You alone, can solve our problems, Töshtük.

So, pay attention to my words, Töshtük:

You must fight the mighty Joloy, Töshtük,

at this memorial toi for Kökötai, Töshtük.

The eyes of the crowd are on you, Töshtük.

and there are many prizes to be won, Töshtük.

This will be a tough contest, Töshtük

but we are confident of your bravery, Töshtük.

So, go forth and fight on our behalf, Töshtük!

Joloy may be mighty,

a hero amongst the Kalmaks,

but by felling him, Töshtük,

you will be renowned by all fighters

and supported by people of every religion, Töshtük.

Only you, dear Töshtük,

have the power to awaken interest in this contest

and amaze us all!

All you have to do, dear Töshtük,

is to kill that Kalmak Joloy

and once you have toyed with his body,

then thrown it to the ground, Töshtük,

you will win every prize on offer

at Kökötai’s memorial toi.

By grabbing his waist and twisting his body,

you can easily knock him down, Töshtük.

By sinking his head in the mud, Töshtük,

you can trample on him like coal, Töshtük.

You can dodge his blows, Töshtük,

by shying away like a young colt, Töshtük.

Fight him till he’s dead, Töshtük,

and everyone will rejoice

by crying out your name, Töshtük.

The Muslims will be happy,

and our enemies, surprised and upset!

Make sure to rile them fully, Töshtük,

by fighting Joloy fairly, Töshtük.

May this fight go down in history, my dear Töshtük!

It will be a struggle, Töshtük,

but pull him down by his ears and kill him, Töshtük.

As such a seasoned fighter, Töshtük,

only you can beat him, Töshtük.

Like all famous fighters before you, Töshtük,

draw on your inner strength, dear Töshtük.

Grab hold of him tightly, Töshtük,

then throw him down like a flag, Töshtük,

You must swim into the depths, Töshtük,

if you are to grind him into the ground Töshtük.

Like a boat on rough water,

plough through him, Töshtük.

I have offered you sound advice, Töshtük,

and wish you success,dear Töshtük.

Deploy all your power, Töshtük,

and teach that Kalmak

that your fighting skills cannot be equaled.

Aim for the back of his head, Töshtük,

then stick it in the mud, Töshtük.

Don’t despair, Töshtük,

if he pulls you from your horse, Töshtük.

When you break the belt of an infidel, Töshtük,

you quench the thirst of Muslims’ souls!

You should be proud of yourself, Töshtük,

for there are none amongst our people,

who can take such pride in their fighting prowess

or have the courage to risk their lives.

Go and meet that balban, Töshtük,

and demonstrate the meaning of immortality, Töshtük,

I have been called before that balban, Töshtük,

so, be strong for my sake, Töshtük,

If you break the belt of Joloy, Töshtük,

I will forever support you Tӧshtük.

There are countless prizes to be won at Kökötai’s toi.

and I would love to take them all, Töshtük!

A thousand others also desire those prizes,

so, you must demonstrate your skills,

by putting your backbone into fighting this monster,

and ridding him of his horse, Töshtük. –

Addressing him like a surrogate son,

Manas tried forcing Töshtük to fight Joloy.

Unable to refuse Manas outright,

he had to think of ways to escape.

Just like the other khans cursed by Manas,

in his desperate search for a fighter,

Töshtük also began to panic:

-There’s every black sign that he’ll force me to fight.

If unable to refuse,

I’ll be caught and meet my end.

And if I don’t agree, things will only get worse,

when he curses me like the rest. –

Then in front of the crowd,

Manas yelled his command at Töshtük:

-Fight the Kalmak balban! –

[1] Toi- traditional Kyrgyz festive gathering

[2] Ukuruk -lasso

[3] Kok Boru – a national game, similar to polo, played with a succession of carcasses of beheaded goats

[4]  Kalmaks – people of the Kyrgyz’s neighbouring nation

[5] Ayran- yoghurt

[6] Choros- Manas’ warriors/guards

[7] Akölpök: traditional coat of pale, dappled bearskin

[8] Aybanboz: a wild and spirited grey horse

[9] Aksakal – a tribal elder 

[10] Two regions in the Chui valley, two hours’ drive from Bishkek: Chong Kemin (large) and Kichi Kemin (small)

[11] Kulali –species of mountain bird

[12] A poet whose recitations are often set to music played on a komuz; a traditional 3-stringed instrument.

[13] Balban – a wrestler


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